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The Rise of Disinformation on Disinformation on Meta, X and TikTok during the Israel-Hamas Conflict

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The Israel-Hamas conflict has not only resulted in devastating consequences on the ground but has also given rise to a new battlefront – the digital space. Social media platforms, such as Meta’s Facebook and Instagram, X (formerly Twitter), and TikTok, have come under scrutiny for their role in disseminating disinformation and violent content surrounding the conflict. In response, the European Union has applied pressure on these platforms to take immediate action. This article explores the challenges faced by these platforms# Meta, X, and TikTok: Battling Disinformation on the Israel-Hamas Conflict.

In the midst of the Israel-Hamas conflict, social media platforms like Meta (formerly Facebook), X (formerly Twitter), and TikTok are facing increasing pressure to combat disinformation and violent content circulating on their platforms. European authorities, in particular, have been vocal in urging these companies to take swift and effective action to protect users, especially children and teenagers, from being exposed to misleading information and disturbing imagery.

EU investigates X over Israel-Hamas disinformation

The European Union’s Push for Content Moderation

Internal Market Commissioner Thierry Breton recently sent letters to the CEOs of Meta, X, and TikTok, demanding transparency regarding their efforts to curb the spread of false information and violent content related to the Israel-Hamas conflict. This move by the European Union is part of its broader content moderation law, the Digital Services Act (DSA), which requires social media platforms to promptly remove illegal content and limit the dissemination of disinformation. Failure to comply with these regulations could result in hefty fines, amounting to up to 6 percent of the company’s annual global revenue.

TikTok’s Responsibility in Combatting Disinformation

Among the platforms targeted by the European Commission, TikTok, known for its popularity among younger users, was specifically called out for its handling of violent content and misinformation. Commissioner Breton emphasized the need for TikTok to intensify its efforts and address the circulation of potentially illegal content despite previous warnings from relevant authorities. Instances of manipulated images, including repurposed videos, have also been identified, raising concerns about the platform’s ability to differentiate between authentic and misleading content.

Meta (Facebook) and X (Twitter) under Scrutiny

Meta, the parent company of Facebook and Instagram, and X, previously known as Twitter, also received letters from Commissioner Breton. While the focus has been on TikTok, these social media giants are also expected to demonstrate their commitment to combatting disinformation and violent content. The European Commission aims to assess their compliance with the DSA and has indicated that further requests for information will be made regarding other aspects of content moderation, including potentially life-threatening content.

The Evolution of Social Media Platforms

The scrutiny faced by Meta, X, and TikTok highlights the changing landscape of social media platforms. These platforms have evolved from being mere communication tools to algorithm-driven recommendation engines. While they still serve as channels for sharing information, they have become increasingly distant from the raw, unfiltered accounts that once made them valuable sources of firsthand reporting.

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In recent years, platforms like TikTok, Meta’s Facebook and Instagram, and X have moved away from prioritizing the surfacing and dissemination of firsthand accounts and have instead focused on algorithmic moderation and promotion. This shift has resulted in a less direct connection between users and the content they consume, often leading to a sense of disorientation and detachment from the sources and context of the information shared.

Telegram Emerges as an Alternative Platform

Amidst concerns about the efficacy of traditional social media platforms in delivering unfiltered content, Telegram has emerged as a popular alternative. This messaging app, known for its relatively uncensored environment, has become a hub for sharing raw and unfiltered media from conflict zones. Telegram’s decentralized nature allows users to share information without the same level of interference or moderation imposed by other platforms. It has provided a space for individuals within war zones, such as Gaza, to share real-time updates and firsthand accounts of the conflict.

While Telegram has its own set of challenges and ethical considerations, including the potential for the spread of misinformation, its role in preserving unfiltered narratives and providing a platform for civilians in conflict zones cannot be overlooked. Users are not shown content they haven’t subscribed to, creating a more controlled and focused information-sharing environment.

The Complexity of Disinformation and Moderation

It is essential to approach the issue of disinformation and content moderation with caution. While efforts to combat false information are necessary, it is crucial to strike a balance between addressing harmful content and ensuring freedom of expression. Disinformation is often used as a catch-all term that can be misused by governments or media organizations with conflicting interests. The focus on disinformation should not overshadow the broader challenges faced in conflict situations, such as limited access to electricity and communication infrastructure.

The Future of Social Media and News Consumption

As social media platforms continue to evolve, the role they play in shaping public understanding of conflicts like the Israel-Hamas war remains significant. However, the shift towards algorithmic-driven platforms raises questions about the reliability and authenticity of the information shared. The move away from firsthand reporting and the increase in mediated content poses challenges for users seeking unfiltered narratives and accurate updates.

While the responsibility for combatting disinformation primarily lies with social media platforms, individuals also play a crucial role in critically evaluating the information they encounter online. Developing media literacy skills and seeking multiple sources of information can help navigate the complexities of news consumption in the digital age.


The Israel-Hamas conflict has brought the issue of disinformation and content moderation to the forefront, prompting calls for action from European authorities. Meta, X, and TikTok are under pressure to address the circulation of false information and violent content on their platforms. As social media continues to shape public understanding of conflicts, it is crucial for platforms to strike a balance between content moderation and the preservation of unfiltered narratives. Additionally, individuals must be proactive in critically evaluating the information they encounter online to ensure a more accurate and nuanced understanding of complex events. The future of social media and news consumption hinges on the ability to navigate these challenges effectively.


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