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Uncovering the Human Trafficking Network: Cuba’s Allegations Against Russia’s War Effort in Ukraine

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Cuba has recently made a startling revelation, claiming to have uncovered a human trafficking network operating from Russia that is recruiting Cubans to fight in Russia’s war in Ukraine. The Cuban foreign ministry issued a statement on Monday, stating that Cubans living in Russia and even some in Cuba had been “incorporated into the military forces taking part in the war in Ukraine.” While the ministry did not provide many details about the alleged trafficking operations, it emphasized that authorities were actively working to “neutralize and dismantle” the network.

Allegations and Lack of Arrests

The Cuban foreign ministry’s statement shed light on the recruitment of Cubans to fight in Ukraine, but it did not specify who was behind the operation. The ministry’s claims come after reports emerged on social media in September, where Cubans alleged that they had been deceived into joining Russia’s armed forces and mistreated when they refused to fight. However, these allegations could not be independently verified, leaving the true extent of Cubans fighting for Russia still uncertain. Despite the gravity of the situation, there have been no reported arrests of individuals involved in the alleged trafficking operation.

Cuba’s Position and Russia’s Response

Cuba reiterated in its statement that it is not a participant in the war in Ukraine, emphasizing its neutrality in the conflict. The Kremlin, on the other hand, has not yet responded to the allegations made by Cuba. The timing of these allegations is significant as Russia has been actively increasing its forces in Ukraine to compensate for heavy losses suffered on the battlefield. Recent events, such as the uncertain future of the mercenary Wagner Group and Russia’s plan to strengthen its armed forces by 30%, further contribute to the geopolitical context surrounding these allegations.

Historical Precedents and Coercion

The involvement of Cubans in conflicts alongside Russia is not unprecedented. During the Cold War, Cuba supplied soldiers while the Soviet Union provided weapons in several African conflicts. Cuban fighters played a crucial role in Angola in 1975 and Ethiopia in 1977, fighting alongside Soviet troops using Soviet equipment. These interventions, celebrated in Cuba, are seen as instrumental in ending apartheid in South Africa. However, the Cuban foreign ministry’s statement alludes to a different situation, implying coercion rather than voluntary participation. The suggestion of forced recruitment adds a concerning dimension to Cuba’s historical relationship with Russia.

Russia’s Utilization of Mercenaries

The revelation of Russia seeking Cuban mercenaries to fight in its war does not come as a surprise to experts. Christopher Sabatini, a senior fellow for Latin America at Chatham House, highlights that Russia has a history of employing mercenaries in desperate states. Cuba’s vulnerable position, on the brink of a humanitarian disaster, makes it an attractive target for Russia’s recruitment efforts. The fact that Russia offers significant financial incentives, with reports of foreign fighters receiving over $2000 a month, exacerbates the situation. Additionally, Russia has reportedly offered citizenship to foreigners willing to take up arms, further enticing potential recruits.

Cuba’s Loyalty and Humiliation

The Cuban government’s reaction to these allegations indicates a rare moment of dissonance in their relationship with Russia. Cuba is known for its unwavering loyalty to its allies, making it significant that they have publicly called out Russia for allegedly exploiting their citizens. The Cuban foreign ministry’s statement, published by Foreign Minister Bruno Rodríguez, emphasizes that Cuba has a firm historical position against the use of mercenaries and will take decisive action against those engaging in human trafficking. The reaction suggests that Cuba feels humiliated and exploited by an ally during a time of desperate need.

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Cuban-Russian Relations and Trade Ties

Despite this recent discord, Cuba and Russia have maintained a close relationship since the Cuban revolution in 1959. Fidel Castro’s rise to power led to Cuba becoming a major ally of the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Moscow provided economic, political, and military assistance to Cuba, solidifying their partnership. The 1962 Cuban missile crisis, which saw the Soviet Union station nuclear missiles in Cuba, further demonstrated the depth of their relationship. While the crisis ended peacefully, tensions between Cuba and the United States remain, largely due to long-standing US sanctions against Cuba. In recent years, Cuba and Russia have strengthened their trade ties, with the two nations signing agreements for increased Russian foreign investment in Cuba.

The Role of Deepening Desperation

The desperation caused by Cuba’s worsening economic crisis plays a significant role in understanding the context of this human trafficking network. With Cuba grappling with severe economic challenges, Russia has stepped in to provide much-needed food and shipments of crude oil. The allure of financial incentives and the promise of Russian citizenship to Cubans living in Russia further exacerbates the situation. The fact that Russia is taking advantage of Cubans’ dire circumstances by offering them the opportunity to flee their country adds insult to injury.

The Uncertain Future of Mercenary Wagner Group

The uncertainty surrounding the future of the mercenary Wagner Group adds another layer of complexity to the situation. The group’s chief, Yevgeny Prigozhin, died in June after leading an aborted mutiny against Moscow. This development raises questions about Russia’s reliance on the Wagner forces to wage its war in Ukraine. As Russia seeks to strengthen its armed forces, the fate of the Wagner Group remains uncertain.


Cuba’s revelation of a human trafficking network recruiting Cubans to fight in Russia’s war in Ukraine has brought attention to the complex dynamics between the two nations. While historical precedents of Cuban involvement in conflicts alongside Russia exist, the suggestion of coercion in this situation raises concerns. Cuba’s public condemnation of Russia indicates a rare moment of dissonance in their relationship, highlighting the humiliation and exploitation felt by Cuba. The desperation caused by Cuba’s economic crisis and Russia’s financial incentives contribute to the recruitment efforts. With the future of the mercenary Wagner Group in doubt, Russia’s actions in Ukraine and its recruitment strategies warrant continued scrutiny.


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