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The Dangers of Hair Straighteners: F.D.A. to Ban Formaldehyde-containing Products

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Hair-straightening products have long been popular among women, especially those marketed to Black women. However, recent studies have raised concerns about the health risks associated with these products, particularly those containing formaldehyde. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (F.D.A.) has proposed a ban on hair-straightening products that contain or emit formaldehyde, following years of evidence linking them to an increased risk of uterine cancer and other health issues. This proposed ban is a significant step towards protecting the health and well-being of consumers.

The Dangers of Hair Straighteners

Research has shown a clear association between the frequent use of chemical hair straighteners and an increased risk of certain cancers. Studies have found a higher incidence of uterine, ovarian, and breast cancers among women who regularly use these products. The risk is particularly pronounced among Black and Latina women. In fact, about 50% of hair products advertised to Black women contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing chemicals, compared to only about 7% of products advertised to White women.

One study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute found that women who frequently used hair-straightening chemical products had a higher risk of developing uterine cancer compared to those who did not use these products. The risk of uterine cancer was approximately 4% for frequent users, compared to about 1.6% for non-users.

The Dangers of Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen, meaning it has the potential to cause cancer. The F.D.A. has classified formaldehyde as a human carcinogen for over seven years. Exposure to formaldehyde can have immediate and long-term health effects. Immediate reactions may include irritation of the eyes and throat, coughing, wheezing, or chest pain. Chronic or long-term exposure can lead to frequent headaches, asthma, skin irritation, and allergic reactions.

Formaldehyde is commonly used in hair-straightening products to help bond the hair and create a straighter appearance. However, when these products are heated or come into contact with air, formaldehyde gas can be released. This poses a risk to both hair stylists, who are regularly exposed to formaldehyde vapor, and customers receiving the treatment.

The F.D.A.’s Proposed Ban

To address the health risks associated with hair-straightening products, the F.D.A. has proposed a rule to ban formaldehyde and other formaldehyde-releasing chemicals from these products. The ban would apply to hair-straightening and hair-smoothing products marketed in the United States. The target date for the ban is April 2024.

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The proposed rule also aims to highlight the short-term adverse health effects of these chemicals, such as sensitization reactions and breathing problems. The F.D.A. acknowledges that these chemicals are used in a combination of chemical and heating tool treatments to smooth or straighten the hair. By banning these harmful chemicals, the F.D.A. hopes to protect the health and well-being of consumers, especially those who have been disproportionately affected by the use of these products.

The Impact on the Cosmetics Industry

The cosmetics industry has faced minimal regulation in the past, but recent actions by the F.D.A. have aimed to change that. While the F.D.A. has always had the authority to ban specific ingredients, including formaldehyde, the oversight of the cosmetics industry has been limited until recently. In 2021, Congress granted the F.D.A. oversight authority over cosmetics, requiring manufacturers to register their manufacturing sites and disclose the ingredients on packaging.

This increased oversight does not mean that all new products will undergo agency review before hitting the market. However, it ensures that manufacturers adhere to safety regulations and allows the F.D.A. to issue mandatory recalls if serious health concerns arise. The F.D.A.’s proposed ban on formaldehyde-containing hair-straightening products is a significant step towards holding the cosmetics industry accountable for the safety of their products.

Consumer Awareness and Action

While the F.D.A. works towards implementing a ban on formaldehyde-containing hair-straightening products, consumers can take steps to protect themselves. The F.D.A. encourages consumers to read product labels carefully before purchasing hair products and to avoid those that contain formaldehyde, formalin, or methylene glycol. It is also essential to communicate with hairdressers and stylists about the products they are using and to report any adverse reactions experienced after using hair-straightening treatments.

Advocacy for Change

Cancer: Formaldehyde found in shampoos and leave-in conditioners increases risk
Cancer: Formaldehyde found in shampoos and leave-in conditioners increases Cancer risk

Advocacy organizations and lawmakers have played a crucial role in raising awareness about the dangers of hair straighteners and pushing for regulatory action. The Environmental Working Group, for instance, has petitioned the F.D.A. multiple times to ban hair products with formaldehyde. Lawmakers, such as Reps. Ayanna Pressley and Shontel Brown, have also called for thorough investigations into the potential risks of hair-straightening chemical products.

The proposed ban on formaldehyde-containing hair-straightening products is a testament to the importance of advocacy and the need for increased regulation in the cosmetics industry. It represents a significant step towards protecting the health and well-being of consumers, particularly those who have been disproportionately affected by the use of these products.


The proposed ban on hair-straightening products containing formaldehyde is a crucial step towards addressing the health risks associated with these products. The link between chemical hair straighteners and an increased risk of uterine, ovarian, and breast cancers highlights the need for stricter regulations in the cosmetics industry. By banning formaldehyde and other formaldehyde-releasing chemicals from these products, the F.D.A. aims to protect consumers from immediate and long-term health effects.

While the ban is still in the proposal stage, it represents a significant move towards holding the cosmetics industry accountable for the safety of their products. Consumer awareness and advocacy have played a crucial role in raising concerns about these products and pushing for regulatory action. By being informed and taking necessary precautions, individuals can protect themselves and make healthier choices when it comes to hair care products.


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