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Oldest Human Ancestors: A Journey from Europe to Africa

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The origins of humanity have long fascinated scientists and researchers. For decades, the prevailing belief has been that our ancient ancestors first emerged in Africa. However, recent discoveries have challenged this notion, suggesting that the story of human evolution may have a more complex and intriguing plot. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating findings that indicate our oldest human ancestors may have actually evolved in Europe, specifically in what is now modern-day Turkey. We will explore the implications of these discoveries and how they reshape our understanding of our evolutionary history.

The Discovery of Anadoluvius turkae

In the Çorakyerler fossil locality near Cankiri, Turkey, a remarkable fossilized skull was unearthed, offering tantalizing insights into our deep past. This skull belongs to a previously unknown species of ape, which scientists have named Anadoluvius turkae. Dating back an astonishing 8.7 million years, this ancient creature is believed to be a significant piece in the puzzle of human evolution.

Challenging the Out of Africa Theory

The prevailing theory of human evolution, known as the “Out of Africa” theory, posits that our hominin ancestors originated in Africa and eventually migrated to other parts of the world. However, the discovery of Anadoluvius turkae calls this theory into question. The analysis of the fossil suggests that hominines, which encompass humans and our closest relatives, may have actually evolved in Europe before making their way to Africa.

A European Origin for Hominines

The European origin hypothesis challenges the longstanding belief in an exclusively African origin for hominines. The researchers involved in the study argue that hominines not only evolved in western and central Europe but also spent over five million years in those regions before dispersing into the eastern Mediterranean and eventually reaching Africa.

The Significance of Anadoluvius turkae

Anadoluvius turkae provides crucial evidence to support the European origin hypothesis. Its discovery suggests a radiation of early hominines in Europe, which includes both African apes and humans. The existence of Anadoluvius turkae, along with other fossil apes from Greece and Bulgaria, indicates that the earliest hominines may have appeared in Europe and subsequently migrated to Africa.

The Anatomy of Anadoluvius turkae

The partial cranium of Anadoluvius turkae offers valuable insights into its anatomy and way of life. The fossilized remains include most of the facial structure and the front part of the brain case. Based on the analysis of these remains, scientists estimate that Anadoluvius turkae weighed between 110 and 130 pounds, similar to the size of a large male chimpanzee. It likely inhabited dry forest environments and spent a significant amount of time on the forest floor.

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Anadoluvius turkae’s Environment

The environment in which Anadoluvius turkae lived provides further clues about its evolutionary journey. The dry forest setting in which it thrived was shared by various animal species commonly associated with African grasslands, such as giraffes, rhinos, antelopes, zebras, elephants, porcupines, hyenas, and lion-like carnivores. This suggests that the migration of ancestral species from Europe to Africa occurred around 8 million years ago, contributing to the diversity of African fauna.

The Connection to Other Fossil Apes

Anadoluvius turkae is not the only fossil ape that challenges the African origin theory. Other fossil apes, including Ouranopithecus from Greece and Graecopithecus from Bulgaria, share similarities in anatomy and ecology with the earliest hominines. This connection indicates that these ancient apes from the Balkans and the eastern Mediterranean evolved from ancestors in western and central Europe.

The Debate Continues

While the discovery of Anadoluvius turkae and the European origin hypothesis provide compelling evidence, the debate surrounding the origins of hominines is far from settled. Some researchers argue for an alternative scenario in which separate branches of apes moved independently into Europe from Africa over several million years, eventually going extinct without leaving descendants. However, the lack of evidence supporting this alternative hypothesis leaves it less convincing than the European origin theory.

Implications for Human Evolution

If the European origin hypothesis is indeed accurate, our understanding of human evolution will undergo a significant paradigm shift. The traditional narrative of a solely African origin for hominines will be challenged, and a more complex story will emerge. It would mean that hominines originated in Europe, evolved and diversified there for millions of years, and later dispersed into Africa along with other mammal species.


The discovery of Anadoluvius turkae and the subsequent analysis of its fossilized remains have opened up new possibilities and sparked intense debate among researchers studying human evolution. The European origin hypothesis challenges the long-held view of an exclusively African origin for our oldest human ancestors. While the debate continues, further research and the discovery of additional fossils from both Europe and Africa will be crucial in establishing a definitive connection between the two groups. As we unravel the mysteries of our evolutionary past, we gain a deeper understanding of ourselves and our place in the intricate tapestry of life on Earth.


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